Continuation…”Discourse Markers”

15. making things clear and giving details
I mean, actually, that is to say, in other words
I mean it is used when making things clearer or we give more details.
Actually is used when introducing details especially when these are unexpected.
That is to say and in other words used when the writer or speaker says something again in another way
Examples:
a. It was a great meeting, I mean, the President had a very good news to all employees!
b. It took us long time to finish cleaning up. Actually, we had a hard time moving the sofa.
c. Mr. J was economical with the truth- in other words, he lied.

16. softening and correcting
I think, I feel, I eckon (informal), I guess (informal), in my view/opinion,(formal) they suggest that the speaker is just giving a personal opinion with which other people may not agree with.
Apparently is used to say that the speaker has got his/her information from someone else and perhaps does not guarantee that it is true.
So to speak, more or less, sort of (informal), kind of (informal), well, really these are used to that one is not speaking exactly or to soften something which might upset other people.
that is to say, at least used to “back down” from something too strong or definite that one has said
I’m afraid, is used when apologizing and can introduce a polite refusal or bad news.

Suppose can be used to suggest unwilling argument
or rather, used to correct oneself
actually can correct misunderstandings
I mean can also be used to correct oneself or to soften

Examples:
a. I think you must tell her the truth.
b. I really feel that there is something between them.
c. I reckon/guess he is just respecting your decision.
d. Do you know she’s pregnant? Apparently, she is again.
e. I kind of think that she’s going to the party.
f. I am afraid I can’t meet you tonight for an emergency reason.
g. I suppose you are not that busy this time.
h. Hi Jane! Actually my name is Nate and not Kate.
i. I am going to Europe in March-or rather April.
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