1. Direct and Indirect Speech
Direct speech is used when giving the exact words

of what other people say, think, believe, etc.

Ann said, "It's going to be fun!"
Mom asked, "Where's the car key?"
"Let's go early tomorrow," suggests Bill.

Indirect speech or reported speech is used when

telling about what someone said but not using that

person's exact words.

She asked if I'm all right.
Jake said that he wanted to drive the car.
Felly wondered whether she'll pass the exam.

2. Change of situation
It's also possible to report what a person said in

one place or time to another setting.

Sally (on Monday morning): I'm too sick to work.
Cathy (on Monday afternoon): Sally said that she

was too sick to work.

3. Pronouns
If there's a change of speaker, pronoun is also


Olly said that he's too full to eat dessert.
Ben asked if he could train with me today.

4. Here and Now
When there's a change of place and time, words like

here, now, this, today are dropped.

Ted said he wanted to order. (not to order now)
Gem asked if she could use the bathroom. (not use

the bathroom here)

5. Tenses
Tense is also changed when there's a change of time.

Harry said he didn't love the food. (not he doesn't love...)

6. Taking Out That
It's also possible to drop the word "that."

Sasha said (that) she'd be done soon.
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